PORT WORKS DESIGN MANUAL PART 2Guide to Design of Piers and Dolphins Civil Engineering Office Civil Engineering Department The Government. Find the most up-to-date version of BS at Engineering Buy BS Maritime works. Code of practice for the design of quay walls, jetties and dolphins from SAI Global.
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They should be connected to a series of drains constructed behind the wall to reduce tidal lag. The overall stability against rotational failure of the wall and the surrounding earth masses should be taken into account as described in 6. The base should be topped with a 6439-2 layer capable of being screeded to level by divers.
Deadman anchorages may be either continuous walls or a series of separate units. In the static and sinking conditions, the trim of a caisson may be adjusted by ballasting. Where cold products are handled, cold splash protection should be provided where necessary for protection of the structural elements. Resistance should be achieved by one of the following methods. Although some combinations of actions are mutually exclusive, the probability of two or more large actions being applied to the structure simultaneously should be assessed.
If a suitable gravity structure exists behind the wall, this may be used as an anchorage. Berths should not, in general, be broadside-on to strong prevailing winds and waves.
Figure 18 shows examples of typical crane rail foundation arrangements. Account should be taken of delections which might arise whilst backilling until the interlocks develop suficient friction to enable the full combined modulus to be developed.
Tie rods should be designed in accordance with BS EN When inclined H-piles are used, the connection with the embedded retaining wall should be designed to take into account the tolerance in position which can be achieved by driving. In the latter case, the movement of the wall due to pressure from the small retained height of soil might be insuficient to develop active pressure ns.
At in-situ concrete walls, all soil replacement at the wall should be done in advance of wall construction. The base and bedding are sometimes laid at a slope to increase bd to sliding. The toe of the wall bx the length of the dispersed load should have an adequate bearing capacity, which might require that the wall be taken down to rock.
Figure 6 Location of anchorages in relation to failure planes in retained ill a Horizontal plate or wall anchorage b Inclined ground anchorage Key 1 Tie rod 2 Anchorage 3 Failure planes 4 Zone of soil to be included in disturbing force 5 Ground anchor NOTE For free earth support, dz is the depth of embedment of the wall. Low carbon steel is preferable where delection of the wall is to be minimized and where long-term settlement could cause bending of the tie rods.
If there is a danger of loss of material, the joints may be sealed by providing a ilter behind the wall or grouting after driving. Where this capability is not established, it should be assumed that there will be no regular maintenance of the structure except for those areas easily accessible from land.
This should be taken into account in the selection of the structure. The foundation in front of the rubble base can also be liable to scour, requiring extension of the anti-scour apron beyond the 1. The effects of lexibility in causing arching of the soil are shown in Figure 3b. Trenches for power supplies to heavy equipment might be required. The planning of such measures for new structures should take into 634-2 the safety measures already 634-2 place in the existing parts of the port, and any that are required bx the 634-92 assessment 4.
An outer projection is often provided on the base slab to increase stability. Careful detailing is required if no vertical actions are to be transmitted from the capping to the wall, especially if the capping is to function as a waling. Yielding can take the form of horizontal movement, or a horizontal movement combined with a forward rotation. In soldier-piled walls, only the piles should be assumed to resist the vertical actions.
Material above this level may be placed before piling, in which case it will need to be dredged out.
Where necessary, the following facilities should also be provided: The length of berth structure that needs to be in contact with a vessel depends on the type of vessel and type of cargo to be handled. For certain types of deep sea Ro-Ro berths, the cope level might need to be lower than normal. The lateral soil pressures acting on embedded retaining walls built in front of a relieving platform conforming to the geometrical arrangement shown in Figure 10a may be assumed to be relieved by the platform.
For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document including any amendments applies. Where the tie rod is not perpendicular to 649-2 wall, bending of the tie rod should be minimized by 63449-2 use of spherical or tapered washers under the nuts or a bridle.
Measures which may be taken to avoid settlement effects in tie rods include the provision of hinged couplings and ixings in the rods, laying the rods to an upward curve, laying the rods on the invert of large diameter ducts, and supporting the rods or the enclosing ducts bw piles.
Where a void exists at the underside of the relieving platform, the theoretical pressure distribution on the back of the embedded retaining wall may be assumed to be as shown in Figure 11b ]. Where separate bearing piles are provided to resist vertical actions, these should support the capping.
The anchor wall is then designed as 63492- cantilever: Contractual and legal considerations This publication does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract. The most sb used interlocking pile sections for steel embedded retaining walls are the U- and Z- types. Differential vertical ba at structural joints may be accommodated by providing a short transition support to the rail.
If shipping patterns show that ships using the berth are never at full draught, a reduced depth might be acceptable. An open-piled structure can be either rigid or lexible.
BS Maritime works. Code of practice for the design of quay walls, jetties and dolphins
Where tendons are to be used, particular attention should be given to the effects on the soil of cyclic actions, and of long-term settlement of the soil causing vertical actions on the tendon. The valves should be ixed just above low water level to allow maintenance.
If ixed access facilities are provided, they will also need to be maintained. When staggered toes are used, the toe lengths of the longer piles should be capable of resisting the total bending, shear and vertical forces which would occur in a wall with uniform toe levels. Ground anchors may be used where other types would not provide the necessary resistance, where there is insuficient space for tie rods or where the ground contains services. The design is similar to that of a double-wall gravity structure.
Walls with a substantial cantilever above tie level might require auxiliary tie-backs to the top.