CARINIANA LEGALIS PDF

Cariniana legalis is a semi-deciduous tree with an umbrella-shaped crown; it can grow from 30 – 50 metres tall. The erect, cylindrical bole can be 70 – cm in. Americas Regional Workshop (Conservation & Sustainable Management of Trees, Costa Rica, November ) Cariniana legalis. The IUCN Red List of. Several Small: How Inbreeding Affects Conservation of Cariniana legalis Mart. Kuntze (Lecythidaceae) the Brazilian Atlantic Forest’s Largest Tree. Plusieurs.

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Cariniana legalis is a species of woody plant in the Lecythidaceae family. One of these trees is more than 3 years old. It is threatened by habitat loss. Taxonomy biology — Taxonomy is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups. The exact definition of taxonomy varies from source to source, but the core of the remains, the conception, naming.

There is some disagreement as to whether biological nomenclature is considered a part of taxonomy, the broadest meaning of taxonomy is used here. In earlier literature, the term had a different meaning, referring to morphological taxonomy, ideals can, it may be said, never be completely realized.

They have, however, a value of acting as permanent stimulants. Some of us please ourselves by thinking we are now groping in a beta taxonomy, turrill thus explicitly excludes from alpha taxonomy various areas of study that he includes within taxonomy as a whole, such as ecology, physiology, genetics, and cytology.

He further excludes phylogenetic reconstruction from alpha taxonomy, thus, Ernst Mayr in defined beta taxonomy as the classification of ranks higher than species.

This activity is what the term denotes, it is also referred to as beta taxonomy. How species should be defined in a group of organisms gives rise to practical and theoretical problems that are referred to as the species problem. The scientific work of deciding how to define species has been called microtaxonomy, by extension, macrotaxonomy is the study of groups at higher taxonomic ranks, from subgenus and above only, than species.

While some descriptions of taxonomic history attempt to date taxonomy to ancient civilizations, earlier works were primarily descriptive, and focused on plants that were useful in agriculture or medicine. There are a number of stages in scientific thinking. Early taxonomy was based on criteria, the so-called artificial systems. Later came systems based on a complete consideration of the characteristics of taxa, referred to as natural systems, such as those of de Jussieu, de Candolle and Bentham.

The publication of Charles Darwins Origin of Species led to new ways of thinking about classification based on evolutionary relationships and this was the concept of phyletic systems, from onwards. This approach was typified by those of Eichler and Engler, the advent of molecular genetics and statistical methodology allowed the creation of the modern era of phylogenetic systems based on cladistics, rather than morphology alone.

Taxonomy has been called the worlds oldest profession, and naming and classifying our surroundings has likely been taking place as long as mankind has been able to communicate. Plant — Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

The term is generally limited to the green plants, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae. This includes the plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae. Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts and their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color.

Xariniana plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although reproduction is also common. There are about — thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, green plants provide most of the worlds molecular carinana and are the basis of most of Earths ecologies, especially on land. Plants that produce grains, fruits and vegetables cqriniana humankinds basic foodstuffs, Plants play many roles in culture.

They are used as ornaments and, until recently and in variety, they have served as the source of most medicines.

File:Cariniana legalis (Mart.) Kuntze (17080150735).jpg

The scientific study of plants is known as botany, a branch of biology, Plants are one of the two groups into which all living things were traditionally divided, the other is animals. The division goes back at least as far as Aristotle, who distinguished between plants, which generally do not move, and animals, which often are mobile to catch their food. Much later, when Linnaeus created the basis of the system of scientific classification. Since then, it has become clear that the plant kingdom as originally defined included several unrelated groups, however, these organisms are still often considered plants, particularly in popular contexts.

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When the name Plantae or plant is applied to a group of organisms or taxon. The evolutionary history of plants is not yet settled. Those which have been called plants are in bold, the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies considerably between authors. Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce energy through photosynthesis, most conspicuous among the algae are the seaweeds, multicellular algae that may roughly resemble land plants, but are classified among the brown, red and green algae.

Each of these groups also includes various microscopic and single-celled organisms. Flowering plant — The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with families, approx. The term angiosperm comes from the Greek composite word meaning enclosed seeds, the ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, during the range to million years ago, and the first flowering plants are known from mya.

They diversified extensively during the Lower Cretaceous, became widespread by mya, angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table. These distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants, the amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms. The vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the xylem and phloem form concentric rings, in the dicotyledons, the bundles in the very young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex.

In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium, the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They contain no cambium and once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases, the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower.

Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, and provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species, the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds.

The floral apparatus may arise terminally on a shoot or from the axil of a leaf, occasionally, as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. There are two kinds of cells produced by flowers.

Microspores, which divide to become pollen grains, are the male cells and are borne in the stamens. The female cells called megaspores, which divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule. The flower may consist only of parts, as in willow. Usually, other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls, the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as sepals and petals.

The outer series is usually green and leaf-like, and functions to protect the rest of the flower, the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, and is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract insect or bird pollinators, attraction is effected by color, scent, and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower. As the worlds fifth-largest country by area and population, it is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official cariniaba.

Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to wildlife, a variety of ecological systems. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony untilwhen the capital of legalie empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, inthe colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.

Independence was achieved in with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a state governed under a constitutional monarchy. An authoritarian military junta came to power in and ruled untilBrazils current constitution, formulated indefines it as a democratic federal republic.

The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, Brazils economy is the worlds ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP as of A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until had one of the worlds fastest growing economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition. Brazils national development bank plays an important role for the economic growth.

Brazil is a power carinana Latin America and a middle power in international affairs. One of the worlds major breadbaskets, Brazil has been the largest producer of coffee for the legalus years and it is likely that the word Brazil comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast. In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology red like an ember, formed from Latin brasa and the suffix -il.

As brazilwood produces a red dye, it was highly valued by the European cloth industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name, early sailors sometimes also called it the Land of Parrots.

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Cariniana legalis Images

In the Guarani language, a language of Paraguay, Brazil is called Pindorama. Colombia — Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, the territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, the Quimbaya and the Tairona. The Spanish arrived in and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, independence from Spain was won inbut by the Gran Colombia Federation was dissolved.

What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada, the new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, and then the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in Since the s the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, and thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage.

Cultural diversity has also influenced by Colombias varied geography. The urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains. Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines, ecologically, it is one of the worlds 17 megadiverse countries, and the most densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer.

Colombia has an economy with macroeconomic stability and favorable growth prospects in the long run. The name Colombia is derived from the last name of Legaliis Columbus and it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all ,egalis New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish and Portuguese rule. The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of When Venezuela, Ecuador and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, New Granada officially changed its name in to the Granadine Confederation.

In the name was changed, this time to United States of Colombia. To refer to country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia.

Cariniana legalis – Useful Tropical Plants

These sites date from the Paleoindian period, at Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found. Venezuela — Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Cariniaana, is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America. It is bordered by Colombia on the west, Brazil on the south, Guyana on the east, Venezuela coverskm2 and has an estimated population of The territory now known criniana Venezuela was colonized by Spain in amid resistance from indigenous peoples and it gained full independence as a separate country in During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, sincethe country has had a series of democratic governments.

Venezuela is a presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District. Venezuela also claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, oil was discovered in the early 20th century, and Venezuela has the worlds largest known oil reserves and has been one of the worlds leading exporters of oil. Previously an underdeveloped exporter legalid commodities such as coffee and cocoa, oil quickly came to dominate exports.

The recovery leegalis oil prices in the early s gave Venezuela oil funds not seen since the s, the Venezuelan government then established populist policies that initially boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, leegalis reducing economic inequality and poverty.

However, such policies later became controversial since they destabilized lealis economy, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic leyalis. According to the most popular and accepted version, inthe stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, so he named the region Veneziola Piccola Venezia.

The name acquired its current spelling as a result of Spanish influence, where the suffix -uela is used as a term, thus. Thus, the name Venezuela may have evolved from the native word and it is not known how many people lived in Venezuela before the Spanish conquest, it has been estimated at around one million.

They also stored water in tanks and their houses were made primarily of stone and wood with thatched roofs. They were peaceful, for the most part, and depended on growing crops, regional crops included potatoes and ullucos.

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