Figure 1: Chrysophyllum albidum tree (A) and fruits (B) [17]. .. Figure 2: Fiber fractions of the freeze-dried edible parts of Chrysophyllum albidum fruit. PDF | Chrysophyllum albidum (Sapotaceae), commonly called white star apple is a very useful medicinal plant common in the tropical and. Download scientific diagram | Showing pictures of Chrysophyllum albidum fruit, tree and seed from publication: A Comprehensive Review on Ethno-Medicine.

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In addition to plant species biology and ecology, understanding the folk knowledge systems related to the use of plant species and how this knowledge system influences the conservation of plant species is an important issue in the implementation of sustainable strategies of biodiversity conservation programs.

This study aimed at providing information on the use and local knowledge variation on Chrysophyllum chrysophlylum G. Don a multipurpose tree species widely used in southern Benin. Data was collected through structured interviews.

Informants were randomly selected from ten villages. The fidelity level and use value of different plant parts of C. The variation in ethnobotanical knowledge was assessed by comparing the use value between ethnic, gender and age groups. In order to assess the use pattern of the different plant parts in folk medicine, a correspondence analysis was carried out on chrydophyllum frequency citation of plant parts.

Four categories of use food, medicine, firewood crysophyllum timber were recorded for C. With respect to the different plant parts, the fleshy pulp of the African star apple fruit showed high consensus degree as food among the informants.

Fifteen diseases were reported to be treated by the different parts of C. Correspondence analysis revealed the specificity of each part in disease treatment. There was no significant difference among ethnic groups regarding the ethno-botanical use value of C. However, significant difference existed chrysopphyllum genders and among age groups regarding the knowledge of the medical properties of this species. Despite its multipurpose character, this species remains underutilized in the region.

Over the world, people rely on plant species for food, medicine, fodder and wood uses [ 12 ]. Among the plant species, the multipurpose species significantly contribute to livelihood enhancing of local populations [ 3 – 5 ]. Unfortunately, most of these multipurpose species are facing a decline of their populations due to the growing demand of non timber forest products NTFPs for household consumption as well as for local, regional and international trade [ 6 – 8 ].

Therefore, there is a need to assess the use pattern of these species by local populations in order to define a sustainable participatory conservation strategy for them. In this light, we focused on the use pattern of the important multipurpose species of Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don, in southern Benin. In Benin, the African star apple Chrysophyllum albidum Sapotaceaea occurs on ferallitic soils [ 9 ].

Despite the role of ecological barrier the Dahomey Gap played in the distribution of many evergreen rain forests species in Western Africa [ 11 ], Chrysophyllum albidum is present in Benin. Nowadays, in Benin, C. Previous studies on C. For instance, the physical, chemical and nutritional characterization of C.

Despite its importance, in Benin C. Therefore, this study intended to fulfill this gap by gathering information on the use of this species in Benin. Most studies on ethnobotanical knowledge have concluded that there is an unequal indigenous knowledge and perception of plant use among local populations related to differences in ecological regions, genders, age, ethnicity, profession, religion, cultural beliefs, and abundance and usefulness of the species being investigated [ 520 – 23 ].

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Such information is relevant to ensure a sustainable and efficient implementation of future management schemes for plant species conservation [ 2425 ]. Therefore, in this study, we also assessed the differences in local knowledge related to gender, ages and ethnic groups for C.

The region is characterized by a bi-modal climatic regime with two rainy seasons one long from mid March to mid July and one short from mid September to mid November alternating with two dry seasons one large from mid November to mid March and one short from mid July to mid September. The annual cheysophyllum ranges from to mm with 82 to rain days.

February-April are the driest months while July-September are the coolest one [ 26 ]. The native vegetation is a semi-deciduous forest which has been converted in almost its totality in a mosaic of traditional agroforestry systems fallows, fields chrysophullum orchard and human settlements where endogenous, cultivated and exotic plant species co-occur [ 27 ].

The population chrysopnyllum this area is a multi-ethnic with the dominance of Aizo and Fon ethnic groups [ 28 ]. Agriculture and non-timber forest products exploitation vhrysophyllum commercialization remain the main economic activities of the population in this area [ 29 ].

Preliminary investigations were carried out to determine: For the preliminary investigations, twenty five people were randomly sampled. They were asked whether they knew and used C. Moreover, they were asked if they knew where C. Fruits and leaves of Chrysophyllum albidum.

Therefore the sample size used for the full survey was Informants were randomly chosen from ten villages where C.

Structured interviews were undertaken using a questionnaire. Questions asked during the interviews were related to i – the plant parts used, ii – the different uses of the species, iii – the use level of the species for each use types e.

The use frequency for the various use categories of the species and for the different plant parts was computed followed Friedman et al. It also represents the number of informants who had positive answer to the use of a plant part fruit, leave, bark, root, etc. N is the total number of informants.

The ethno-botanic use value was determined to assess the importance of C. The ethno-botanic use value was calculated following the formula of Philips and Gentry [ 32 ]. Data were arranged per use category k and the ethno-botanic use value UV in each category was computed as the mean score given by all the informants in the considered category. Where ‘s’ is the score attributed to C.

Finally, the overall ethno-botanical use value of the species was determined for each ethnic, age and gender group as:. Where ‘k’ is the number of use categories, UV k is the estimated ethno-botanic use value of the species in the use category ‘k’ for each ethnic, age and gender group. The normality and homogeneity of the use value were checked and non parametric tests were performed to assess significant differences related to gender, age and ethnic group.

Chi-sq test was used to determine whether there was statistic difference in the species fruit taste among ethnic group, gender or age.

Nutrients Compositions and Phytochemical Contents of Edible Parts of Chrysophyllum albidum Fruit

In order to assess the use pattern of the plant parts in folk medicine, correspondence analysis was carried out on the frequency of citation of the different plant parts in ailment treatment.


Chrysophylum use categories namely food, medicine, firewood and timber were recorded for C. Food purpose represented the most dominant category. The species was less used albidhm timber 2. Other used categories such as fodder, medico-magical or plant shadow were seldom mentioned by the informants.


Fidelity level use of each category of Chrysophyllum albidum. Results revealed albidim high consensus degree of C. The fleshy pulp of the fruits is widely eaten by the local populations.

The pulp can taste either very sweet or sour. Locally, the variation of the fruit exocarp color is said to be correlated with the pulp taste. The exocarp of the sweet fruits was reported to be yellow while that of the sour ones chrysophylluk thought to have a mixture of yellow and green colours when mature.

Fifteen ailments were reported to be treated with C. The leaves were frequently used to treat malaria, blood pressure and anemia. The roots were involved in the treatment of sterility, sexual asthenia and asthma; while seeds were mostly used to treat intestinal worms and hemorrhoid. The bark was used against cough, icterus, yellow fever and the fruits against avitaminosis and chgysophyllum dental decay. Method of transformation and processing of different plant part, forms of uses, ailment treat and fidelity level of uses of C.

With respect to the wood of C. However, during the fieldwork, it was noticed that C. This suggests that that tree owners of C. Chrysophyllum albidum bole showing its fluted structure. Besides the albidim uses food, medicine, woodC.

Rotten or damaged fruits were also used to feed pigs. The species was also used in traditional rituals and was reported to have medico-magical properties. It should be noted that the information regarding C.

Chrysophyllum albidum – Wikipedia

Some informants stated that the species was used for life renewing by old people and patients who were close to death. It was also mentioned to be used to chase bad spirits. According to local socio-cultural considerations, there were several taboos regarding the species cultivation. Informants considered that C. No significant differences were observed between ethnic groups in the different use categories of C.

However, the medicine and firewood use significantly depended on gender. Women quoted nine ailments for which C. A total of eight ailments were reported by both genders.

Use value of C.


Similarly, significant differences were observed between age classes regarding the medicinal uses of C. Young informants knew little about the medicinal use of the species while old qlbidum considered the species as a highly valuable taxon for medicine.

Lastly, informants of different age classes presented equal knowledge on C. Overall, the ethno-botanical use value of C. This study highlights the multipurpose character of Chrysophyllum albidum in Benin. Four use categories were determined for the species. Three use categories food, medicinal and firewood emerged as having a high consensus degree among the informants in the region. Our findings are consistent with previous studies which reported rich and diverse array of uses of C.

For instance the species was mentioned to be highly valued in traditional medicine and its fruits widely consumed in Nigeria [ 1935 ] as it was observed in our study area.

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