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Concepts should be an aid to conceive. Having clearly defined terms and concepts, even complicated relationships become comprehensible.
Unclear definitions can even muddle simple facts and relationships. Someone coming from other fields of endeavor and starts to learn about money matters will be amazed at the double talk which is prevailing in these circles. Somewhere changes in the general level of prices get mixed up with the change of single prices and even get subsumed under the term inflation. Elsewhere profit, earnings, interest, yield and surplus value are used for the same as for different phenomena. The stated reason is that the transfer from account to account can balance a claim, just as a change of hands with money.
Even laymen would rightfully tell them that they are confusing everybody including themselves. In the following we will try therefore to shed some clarity on the conceptions and functions around money, even though antiquated and deeply engraved thinking habits have to be challenged. The answer to this question alone could fill books! At first, money is quite a fantastic invention, comparable to the invention of the wheel. Just as with the help of the wheel the transport of goods was made easy in a previous unthinkable manner so made money the exchange of goods and even the production of goods for sale possible.
Without money it was only possible to exchange service for service. The basket-maker, who needed new shoes, had first to find a shoe-maker, who needed a basket. This shows that without money a market for specialization and division of labor was impossible to achieve.
Looking at the exchange of services and goods, which made civilization and culture possible, money is the intermediary which frees the render of a service from being bound to one partner. Money makes it possible to sell a service to anyone interested in it and, with the received payment, unlimited by time and place, asking for a return service from anybody else.
Before money came into existence these services were rendered by goods, which nearly everybody could use, such as salt, grains, tea-bricks or coca-beans. Money, being countable and durable gelfsyndrom well as facilitating to be carried, stored and to compare prices, brought about the development of a market economy teldsyndrom which the civilization of today would be unthinkable. This question is not difficult to answer for the common man. Money is, what he has in his wallet or at home in a drawer: On the market there are hardly any misunderstandings either: A bill is paid with money or with a transfer of deposits from an account.
In practical life money is a neutral anonymous medium of exchange that circulates in economy. With this idea of money students of economy get into difficulties after a few semesters. They are taught to count positive accounts in the banks for money, too. And this notion of money gets extended farther and farther. Note, these are the words of an official of the institution which is responsible for the amount of money in circulation.
How Can Money Be Defined? The definition of money becomes more difficult if the conception of money will be extended to more and more phenomena. This difficulty is reflected in scientific statements, for which three samples should suffice: Issing is almost reassuring: Trying to define money with its functions one can describe it as follows: Medium of exchange calculating base, price measurement or price comparer store of value and medium for transferring value.
Using judiciary or documentary aspects, then veldsyndrom is: And, if one considers the above mentioned faults helmjt money, then it is: An institution, the function of which as a store of value works against the original purpose as a medium of exchange, an institution which stands on one leg because the compulsion to accept it is not counter-balanced by a compulsion to pass it on, the only public service which everybody can take out of service and can legally abuse for private gain.
Within these confinements we have answered the question what money is. It is the medium to which all the definitions above apply. And this is only the case with bank notes and coins, the medium of exchange, which the state issues. For all other phenomena which economists call money, like accounts, checks, credit-cards and so on, the definitions apply only in a few points.
Consequently we should not call them money, even though we can do similar things with them as with money. Logic as well as scientific integrity should call for distinct definitions.
Which Purposes Can Money Serve?
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Just as one gets money as payment for services, so it will be given away for the services of others. Money cannot only be used for buying, one can also give it away or lend it out.
Or, one can just let it sit. If you pass it on, it is gone to xreutz hands and the recipient can do with it what he wants. If you lend the money out you give up your rights on it for only a while. If somebody just lets it sit, he postpones his right to a counter-service at a later time.
With that he causes a disruption of the circulation of money. This disruption is not a single occurrence. It is like a chain-reaction! Figuring that usually money changes hands two times a month on an average, then an idle DM bill prevents demand for DM a year. While by giving away, buying or lending out, the money remains circulating, the keeping of money idle will lead to disruptions which in the course of time will accumulate.
We will later go into more details but let us state once more that one can use money for three different functions: And then one can use it as a capital good xreutz it out for interest.
Die 29 Irrtümer Rund Ums Geld by Helmut Creutz
Are Checks and Credit Cards Money? Using checks, transfers, debit entries you can transfer credit balances from one account to another. With a check you can withdraw money from an account. For that reason you cannot call a check money. It is a paper allowing somebody to transfer a right on money to a third person or to withdraw ones own money from the bank. Credit- and check-cards are even less money. They only guarantee the receiver that his claim will be covered by a transfer of money in due time.
They are only technical aids to transfer money. Money are only the bills and coins issued from the national bank, with which one can settle claims from hand to hand without bookkeeping and which after that, can instantly be given to a third party. Money is also the prerequisite of a bank balance. Certainly, some things may be said in favour of the idea to comprise daily transferable accounts with the amount of money as is done with the M1 expression.
Because of todays double function of these accounts as means of transfer or credit, this is highly problematic. We will go deeper into this later.
The first is the settling of a claim by payment, the second by a transfer und the third by a trade. If checks or bread are money, then money or checks are – bread!
Chapter 1 – The Money Syndrome –
Such equalizations are not only questionable in a conceptual sense, but also for practical reasons. Thus, the amount of bread can directly be multiplied by work and the amount of transferable assets increases.
The amount of money and this is the significant difference can only be increased by the national bank the Fed in the states. The settling of claims by trading or transfer creuhz assets thus depends on previous contributions ccreutz the buyer and therefore is always backed.
Money itself, however, is the only medium of demand which can without backing by production be brought into circulation by the issuing bank.
Die 29 Irrtümer Rund Ums Geld
The difference between money, check and trade-goods becomes still more distinct, if you imagine that the plumber loses his payment: If he lost the bread, his claim would nevertheless remain settled. If he lost the check, his claim would still be unsettled and eventually he could ask the baker for a new one. In the first case only he is hurt. In the second case, he has no loss at all. In the third case, he not only hurts himself but also the public, because he started, even unwillingly, a chain reaction which disrupts the circulation of money.
Imagine three hungry and tired hikers who, late in the evening, arrive at a village and would like to get a good meal. The first of the three has a 20 dollar bill in his pocket, the second a basket of fresh mushrooms, which are worth at least 20 dollars, and the third boasts of being able to split more than 20 dollars worth of wood in one hour. The one with the money will have no problems at all to get a meal in the next inn.
The one with the mushrooms will only get one if he can sell or trade them. Still harder it will be for the third, since it seems doubtful that somebody might look for a laborer to split wood this late in the evening. One more example which may be even more drastic: After opening the doors two weeks helut, the ten people will probably be dead, the goods in the market-hall for the largest part spoiled, but the bills in the safe would be as fresh as before.
Hence, money is – in contrast to the understanding of Marx and other economists – in no way equal to goods and labor, but much superior to those. What Are the Dimensions in Calculating with Money? When we talk about money we can no longer avoid speaking of figures in the millions and billions and some figures have even crossed the boundary to the trillions. We still have a concrete idea, when we think of one- ten- or a hundred thousand Marks.
However, a figure with six, nine or even more zeros behind gelddsyndrom first number creitz our capacity of imagination and judgement. We might get excited to learn that dass earns 20′ Marks per month and we may find it unjust and unbearable. But if we read about someone who gets ‘, 2 million or even 20 million a month our critical faculty dissolves and gives way to amazed awe.
Though the numbers get extended just by zeros, those zeros bear a meaning: Three zeros more, yelmut means 1 billion, and it will take him 96 years eight hours a day without interruption!