The Maccabees also spelled Machabees were a group of Jewish rebel warriors who took control of Judea, which at the time. 1 Maccabees is a book written in Hebrew by a Jewish author after the restoration of an The book is held as canonical scripture by the Catholic, Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox churches (except for the Orthodox Tewahedo), but not by. The Books of the Maccabees, Maccabees also spelled Machabees, four books, none of which is in the Hebrew Bible but all of which appear in some.

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Machabaei or Maccabaei ; Greek: They reasserted the Jewish religion, partly by forced conversionexpanded the boundaries of Bibpe by conquest and reduced the influence of Hellenism and Hellenistic Judaism. The name Maccabee [3] is often used as a synonym for the entire Hasmonean dynastybut the Maccabees proper were Judah Maccabee and his four brothers. The name Maccabee was a personal epithet of Judah, [4] and the later generations were not his direct descendants.

The correlating Macacbee verse Exodus The scholar and poet Aaron Kaminka argues that the name is a corruption of Machbanaia leading commando in the army of King David. Judea at that time had been affected by the Hellenization initiated by Alexander the Great.

Some Jews, mainly those of the urban upper class, notably the Tobiad family, wished to dispense with Jewish law and to adopt a Greek lifestyle. According to the historian Victor Tcherikoverthe main motive for the Tobiads’ Hellenism was economic and political.

When Antiochus IV Epiphanes ca.

The Books of the Maccabees | biblical literature |

To Antiochus, the High Priest was merely a local governor within his realm, a man whom he could appoint maccaebe dismiss at will, while orthodox Jews saw the holder of the High Priesthood as divinely appointed. Jason abolished the traditional theocracy and “received from Antiochus permission to convert Jerusalem into a Greek polis called Antioch”.

Menelaus had Onias assassinated. Menelaus’ brother Lysimachus stole holy vessels from the Temple; the resulting riots led to the death of Lysimachus.

Menelaus was arrested for Onias’ murder, and was arraigned before Antiochus, but he bribed his way out of trouble. Jason subsequently drove out Menelaus and became High Priest again. Antiochus pillaged the Temple, attacked Jerusalem and “led captive the women and children” [13] BCE. From this point onwards, Antiochus pursued a zealous Hellenizing policy in the Maccabes satrapies of Coele Syria and Phoenicia. The author of the First Book of Maccabees regarded the Maccabean revolt as a rising of pious Jews against the Seleucid king who had tried to eradicate their religion and against the Jews who supported him.

The author of the Second Book of Maccabees presented the conflict as a struggle between “Judaism” and “Hellenism”, concepts which he coined. Schultz, modern scholarship “considers the Maccabean revolt less as an uprising against foreign oppression than as a civil war between the orthodox and reformist parties in the Jewish camp”, [19] but John J.

Collins writes that while the civil war between Jewish leaders led to the king’s new policies, it is wrong to see the revolt as simply a conflict between Hellenism and Judaism, since “[t]he revolt was not provoked by the introduction of Greek customs typified by the building of a gymnasium but by the persecution maccqbee people who observed the Torah by having their children circumcised and refusing to bib,e pork.


According to 1 Maccabees, Antiochus banned many traditional Jewish and Samaritan [14] religious practices: It is said that an idol of Olympian Zeus was placed on the altar of the Temple and that Israelites set up altars to Greek gods and sacrificed “unclean” animals on them. In the narrative of I Maccabeesafter Antiochus issued his decrees forbidding Jewish religious practice, a maccabfe Jewish priest from ModiinMattathias the Hasmoneansparked the revolt against the Seleucid Empire by refusing to worship the Greek gods.

Mattathias killed a Hellenistic Jew who stepped forward to offer a sacrifice to an idol in Mattathias’ place. He and his five sons fled to the wilderness of Judah. The Maccabees destroyed pagan altars in the villages, circumcised boys and forced Jews into outlawry. The revolt involved madcabee battles, in which the Maccabean forces gained notoriety among the Seleucid army for their use of guerrilla tactics. After the victory, the Maccabees entered Jerusalem in triumph and ritually cleansed the Templereestablishing traditional Jewish worship maccabeee and installing Jonathan Maccabee as high priest.

A large Seleucid army was sent to quash the revolt, but returned to Syria on the death of Antiochus IV. Its commander Lysias, preoccupied with internal Seleucid affairs, agreed to a political compromise that restored religious freedom. The Jewish festival of Hanukkah celebrates the re-dedication of the Temple following Judah Maccabee’s victory over the Seleucids. According to Rabbinic traditionthe victorious Maccabees could only find a small jug of oil that had remained uncontaminated mcacabee virtue of a seal, and although it only contained enough oil to sustain the Menorah for one day, it miraculously lasted for eight days, by which time further oil could be procured.

Following the re-dedication of the temple, the supporters of the Maccabees were divided over the question of whether to continue fighting or not. When the revolt began under the leadership of Mattathias, it was seen as a war for religious freedom to end the oppression of the Seleucids. However, as the Maccabees realized how successful they had been, many wanted to continue the revolt and conquer other lands with Jewish populations or to convert their peoples. This policy exacerbated the divide between the Pharisees and Sadducees under later Hasmonean monarchs such as Alexander Jannaeus.

Jonathan made treaties with various foreign states, causing further dissent between those who merely desired religious freedom and those who sought greater power.

The Bible: 1 Maccabees

Simon conquered the port of Joppawhere the Gentile population were ‘forcibly removed’, [30] and the fortress of Gezer. He expelled the garrison from the Acra madcabee Jerusalem. Their decree became the basis of the Hasmonean kingdom. Shortly after, the Roman senate renewed its alliance with the Hasmonean kingdom and commanded its allies in the eastern Mediterranean to do so also. When Simon refused to give up the territory he had conquered, Antiochus took them by force.

Antiochus conquered the entire district of Judea, but refrained from attacking the Temple or interfering with Jewish observances.

The Maccabean story is preserved in the books of the First and Second Maccabeeswhich describe in detail the re-dedication of the Temple in Jerusalem and the lighting of the menorah.

These books are not part of the Tanakh Hebrew Bible which came from bjble Jewish canon; however, they were part of the Alexandrian canon which is also called the Septuagint sometimes abbreviated LXX.


They are not included in the Old Testament books in most Protestant Bibles since biblle Protestants consider the books apocryphal. Bib,e references to Hanukkah are also made in the Mishna Bikkurim 1: The miracle of the one-day supply of oil miraculously lasting eight msccabee is first described maccaber the Talmudcommitted to writing about years after the events described in the books of Maccabees.

The second and fourth books of the Maccabees recount the martyrdom of seven Jewish brothers, their mother and their teacher. Although these are not said to be of the Maccabee family, they are referred to in Christianity as the Holy Maccabean Martyrs or the Holy Maccabees.

The three Ethiopian books of Meqabyan quite distinct works from the other four books of Maccabeeswhich are canonical in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Churchalso refer to the Maccabee martyrs. The first of these books states that their father was a Benjamite named Maccabeus, and that three of the brothers, macccabee are called Abya, Seela, and Fentos, were captured and martyred for leading a guerilla war against Antiochus Epiphanes.

Nine years later, 1 Mxccabee became the feast of Saint Alphonsus Maria de’ Liguori and the mention of the Maccabee martyrs was omitted from the General Roman Calendarsince in its revision it no longer admitted commemorations.

Braginskaya comes to the conclusion that the mosaic reflects the symbolic story of the Maccabees. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Maccabees disambiguation.

The Books of the Maccabees

Wojciech Stattler ‘s “Machabeusze” “The Maccabees” Books of the Maccabees. Woman with seven sons. List of Hasmonean amccabee Herodian rulers. The Mathematics of the Calendar. Exploring Forms of Political Theatre. Religions of the Ancient World: Judaism and the Gentile Faiths: Comparative Studies in Religion.

Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. A Survey of the New Testament. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible.

A Survey of Israel’s History. Primary Readings, By Louis H. Feldman, Meyer Reinhold, Fortress Press,p.

Mark Antony ” …then resolved to get him made king of the Jews… told them that it was for their advantage in the Parthian war that Maccabfe should be king; so they all gave their votes for it. And when the senate was separated, Gible and Caesar went out, with Herod between them; while the consul and the rest of the magistrates went before them, in order to offer sacrifices [to the Roman gods], and to lay the decree in the Capitol.

Hermeneutics, Authority, and Canon. Wipf and Stock Publishers. Chrismukkah Thanksgivukkah Hanukkah bush. Macczbee from ” https: Articles incorporating a citation from the Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference Articles containing Hebrew-language text Articles containing Latin-language text Articles containing Greek-language text Commons category link is on Wikidata. Views Read Edit View history.

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